Living Environment - June 2011

41 The percent of DNA that species A has in common with species B, C, D, and E are shown in the graph below.

Which statement is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from this graph?

(1) Species A is closely related to species B, but is not related to species E.
(2) Fewer mutations have occurred in species B and C than in species A.
(3) Species A and E have the greatest similarity in protein structure.
(4) Environment influences the rate of evolution.

Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
…Corals come in about 1,500 known species—from soft swaying fans to stony varieties with hard skeletons that form reef bases. They are made up of polyps, tiny animals that live in colonies and feed at night on microscopic plants and creatures. The coral’s surface is the living part, with color infused by single-celled algae called zooxanthellae that live in polyp tissue. The algae act like solar panels, passing energy to the coral as they photosynthesize while feeding on the coral’s waste. Extremely sensitive, corals survive in a narrow range of temperature, sunlight and salinity. An uncommonly severe El Niņo in 1998 raised ocean temperatures and changed currents, causing bleaching that devastated reefs worldwide. Scientists say parts of the Indian Ocean lost up to 90 percent of corals. The bleaching struck reefs around the Persian Gulf, East Africa, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean. Some recovered. Many died. … Source: Associated Press, December 2001

42 The relationship between the polyps and the zooxanthellae can best be described as

(1) negative for both    
(2) neutral for both
(3) positive for both
(4) negative for one and positive for the other

43 The passage contains information concerning

(1) limiting factors               (3) bacteria
(2) reproductive methods     (4) competition

Part B–2

44 State one way insect pests in an apple orchard can be controlled without using chemical pesticides. [1]

45 The tranquilizer thalidomide was once prescribed for pregnant women. When this drug was used between the third and sixth week after fertilization, serious deformities in the fetus occurred as the fetus developed.

State why thalidomide would have a greater effect on development when used between weeks 3 and 6 than
when used in late pregnancy. [1]

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