Living Environment - June 2011

16 The diagram below represents a portion of a DNA molecule.

The letters represent different types of

(1) sugar molecules    (3) enzymes
(2) molecular bases    (4) proteins

17 Cotton plants produce seeds that contain high-quality protein. This protein could be used as a food source except that the seeds are poisonous to humans. Recently, scientists have inserted a section of DNA into the cotton plants that makes the cotton seeds nonpoisonous. The technique for this procedure is known as

(1) gene manipulation   (3) reproduction
(2) cloning                   (4) direct harvesting

18 Which mutation in a fruit fly could be passed on to its offspring?

(1) a mutation in a cell of an eye that changes the color of the eye
(2) a mutation in a leg cell that causes the leg to be shorter
(3) a mutation in a sperm cell that changes the shape of the wing
(4) a mutation in a cell of the digestive tract that produces a different enzyme

19 Which process initially provides the link between an abiotic factor and the energy needs of an entire ecosystem?

(1) respiration          (3) decomposition
(2) photosynthesis   (4) predation

20 Buffalo grass is a species of plant found on the grazing prairies of Wyoming. It is a tough grass that has silicates (compounds containing oxygen and silicon) that reinforce its leaves. For
hundreds of years, this grass has survived in an adverse environment. Which statement best explains the presence of this grass today?

(1) There are no variations in this grass species that help it to survive in an adverse environment.
(2) Silicates are necessary for photosynthesis.
(3) The current species has no mutations.
(4) The silicates in the grass have given the species an advantage in its environment.

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