Living Environment - June 2011

11 The diagram below represents division of a cell that produces two daughter cells.

Which statement most likely describes the daughter cells produced?

(1) The daughter cells will pass on only half of the genetic information they received from the original cell.
(2) The daughter cells will each produce offspring that will have the same genetic information as the original cell.
(3) The daughter cells will each undergo the same mutations as the original cell after reproduction has occurred.
(4) The daughter cells will not pass on any of the genes that they received from the original cell.

12 Which concept is best represented in the diagram below?

(1) random mutations       (3) genetic engineering
(2) ecological succession   (4) direct harvesting

13 The cells that make up leaves on a tree are genetically identical, yet the leaves often have different shapes and sizes, as shown in the
diagram below.

Which statement best explains this difference in leaf appearance?

(1) The leaves at the top of the tree get more sunlight, causing the genes in their cells to be expressed differently.
(2) The genes in the cells of leaves at the top of the tree are destroyed by sunlight, causing the leaves to stop growing.
(3) The leaves near the bottom of the tree have more genes related to leaf size, causing them to grow larger.
(4) The genes in the cells of leaves near the bottom of the tree increase in number, causing them to grow even larger.

14 Selective breeding is a technique that is used to

(1) give all organisms a chance to reproduce
(2) produce organisms from extinct species
(3) produce offspring with certain desirable traits
(4) keep farm crops free of all mutations

15 On hot, dry days, guard cells often close microscopic openings in plant leaves, conserving water. This is an example of

(1) environmental factors causing gene mutation in plants
(2) finite resources acting as selecting agents for evolution
(3) a feedback mechanism for maintaining homeostasis
(4) differentiation in plants as a result of stimuli

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