Living Environment - January 2011


16 A diagram of evolutionary pathways of various animal species is shown below.

The pattern of these evolutionary pathways is most likely the result of alterations within which structure?

(1) vacuole              (3) nucleus
(2) cell membrane     (4) ribosome

17 Which situation is least likely to result in new inherited characteristics?

(1) altering genetic information
(2) changes in the structure of genes
(3) producing new individuals by means of cloning
(4) changes in the structure of individual chromosomes

18 In most mammals, the placenta is essential to the embryo for the processes of

(1) meiosis and excretion
(2) nutrition and excretion
(3) milk production and digestion
(4) blood exchange and digestion

19 Ancestors of the giant panda had rounded paws with five very short toes. Today, the giant panda has a sixth toe, often referred to as a thumb, even though it develops from a wrist bone. This unique thumb is an adaptation that allows the panda to easily hold and eat bamboo shoots. The presence of the giant panda’s thumb is most likely the result of

(1) natural selection
(2) selective breeding
(3) asexual reproduction
(4) ecological succession

20 The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.

Which statement is correct regarding the structure represented by X?

(1) Structure X is composed of many different amino acids that determine the type of cell it will become in the organism.
(2) Structure X has the same base sequence in all the body cells of the organism.
(3) Structure X is a folded chain arrangement of carbohydrate found in all the body cells of the organism.
(4) Structure X contains 20 different kinds of subunits that are present in all the cells of
the organism.

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