Living Environment - January 2011


Part C

Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the experimental setup shown below. The
tubing connected to both flask setups used in the experiment provides oxygen to the solution.

56 State one possible hypothesis for the experiment. [1]

57 State what type of data would most likely be collected during the experiment to
support or refute your hypothesis. [1]

Base your answer to question 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of

Stem cells present in an embryo are responsible for the formation of various tissues and organs. Recent research suggests that it may be possible to replicate stem cells from sections of skin taken from adult mice, rather than having to use stem cells from the embryos of mice. In the future, human stem cells may be used to replace human tissue
damaged by diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

58 Discuss why the use of stem cells taken from a patient to replace damaged tissues and organs may decrease the potential risk to a patient. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the major problem that may occur when tissues and organs donated by
another individual are used [1]
• explain why this problem may occur [1]
• explain why this problem will not occur if tissues and organs produced by stem cells
from the patient are used [1]

59 Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacterium that lives on the skin and in the nostrils
of most people. Generally, it is controlled by the immune system of the body.
Occasionally, the antibiotic penicillin is needed to control the bacterium. However,
some strains of S. aureus have a resistance to penicillin, which makes them hard to kill
and infections difficult to cure. Explain how the resistance to penicillin affects the S. aureus population. In your answer, be sure to include an explanation of:
• how the exposure to penicillin affects the survival of some bacteria in the population
• why the frequency of penicillin-resistant bacteria can change over time within the
population [1]
• how it is still possible to cure patients who are infected with penicillin-resistant
bacteria [1]

Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.

An ecology class is trying to help reduce the problem of global warming by asking their school district to change all of their old lightbulbs to compact fluorescent lightbulbs that use less electricity. 60 Identify one specific gas that contributes to the problem of global warming. [1]

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