Global History & Geography - January 2011

16 By closing Japanese harbors to most foreigners in the 1600s, the Tokugawa shogunate attempted to

(1) protect Japan from European influence
(2) increase Japanese agricultural production
(3) eliminate Japan’s influence on Southeast Asia
(4) destroy traditional Japanese culture

17 The Ottomans were a strong trading empire through the mid-1600s because they

(1) controlled access to the eastern Mediterranean Sea
(2) had the most powerful navy in the world
(3) dominated West African caravan routes
(4) conquered most of Asia

18 One way in which the Aztec and Inca civilizations are similar is that they both

(1) defeated the Spanish conquistadors
(2) developed advanced architectural techniques
(3) lacked strong central governments
(4) settled primarily in river valleys

19 One effect of the encomienda system in Latin America was that it

(1) eliminated the use of guilds
(2) promoted isolationism
(3) exploited indigenous peoples
(4) reduced Spanish influence

20 The Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights led the English government to develop a political system in which

(1) rulers were responsible to the people
(2) religious authorities controlled the lawmaking process
(3) the power of the monarch came from God
(4) the individual was denied a trial by jury

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