1 Which phrases best identify characteristics of asexual reproduction?

(1) one parent, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to the parent
(2) one parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents
(3) two parents, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to parents
(4) two parents, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents 

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2 To determine the identity of their biological parents, adopted children sometimes request  DNA tests. These tests involve comparing DNA samples from the child to DNA samples taken from the likely parents. Possible relationships may be determined from these tests because the

(1) base sequence of the father determines the base sequence of the offspring
(2) DNA of parents and their offspring is more similar than the DNA of non-family members
(3) position of the genes on each chromosome is unique to each family
(4) mutation rate is the same in closely related individuals

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3 Although all the body cells in an animal contain the same hereditary information, they do not all look and function the same way. The cause of this difference is that during differentiation

(1) embryonic cells use different portions of their genetic information
(2) the number of genes increases as embryonic cells move to new locations
(3) embryonic cells delete portions of chromosomes
(4) genes in embryonic body cells mutate rapidly

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4 One way to produce large numbers of genetically identical offspring is by

(1) cloning
(2) fertilization
(3) changing genes by agents such as radiation or chemicals
(4) inserting a DNA segment into a different DNA molecule

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5 Most cells in the body of a fruit fly contain eight chromosomes. How many of these chromosomes were contributed by each parent of the fruit fly?

(1) 8       (3) 16
(2) 2       (4) 4

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