1 According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce?

(1) Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(2) Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are.
(3) Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(4) Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.

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2 New inheritable characteristics would be least likely to result from

(1) mutations which occur in muscle cells and skin cells
(2) mutations which occur in male gametes
(3) mutations which occur in female gametes
(4) the sorting and recombination of existing genes during meiosis and fertilization

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3 According to the interpretation of the fossil record by many scientists, during which time interval shown on the time line below did increasingly complex multicellular  organisms appear on Earth?

(1) A to B            (3) C to D
(3) B to C            (4) D to

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4 Which situation would most directly affect future generations naturally produced by a maple tree?

(1) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within some leaves of the tree.
(2) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some  flowers of the tree.
(3) An increase in temperature reduces the number of cell divisions in the roots.
(4) Rapidly growing cells just under the bark are exposed to radiation, causing changes in genetic material.

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5 Which statement is best supported by fossil records?

(1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
(2) Species occupying the same habitat have identical environmental needs.
(3) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
(4) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate
from the same type of tissue found in embryos.

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