1 The diagram below represents a change that occurred in a pair of chromosomes during the formation of an egg cell. The letters represent genes on the pair of chromosomes.

The alteration that occurred will most likely

(1) be passed on to every cell that develops from the egg cell
(2) change the chromosome number of the body cells that develop from the egg cell
(3) convert sex cells into body cells
(4) trigger the production of pathogens

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2 A small amount of DNA was taken from a fossil of a mammoth found frozen in glacial ice. Genetic technology can be used to produce a large quantity of identical DNA from this mammoth’s DNA. In this technology, the original DNA sample is used to

(1) stimulate differentiation in other mammoth cells
(2) provide fragments to replace certain human body chemicals
(3) act as a template for repeated replication
(4) trigger mitosis to obtain new base sequences

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3 Many diabetics are now using insulin that was made by certain bacteria. The ability of these bacteria to produce insulin was most likely the result of

(1) deleting many DNA segments from bacterial DNA
(2) genetic mapping of bacterial DNA to activate the gene for insulin production
(3) inserting a portion of human DNA into the ring-shaped DNA of bacteria
(4) using radiation to trigger mutations

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4 Which situation would most directly affect future generations naturally produced by a maple tree?

(1) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within some leaves of the tree.
(2) Ultraviolet radiation changes the DNA sequence within the gametes of some flowers of the tree.
(3) An increase in temperature reduces the number of cell divisions in the roots.
(4) Rapidly growing cells just under the bark are exposed to radiation, causing changes in genetic material.

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5 Which statement is best supported by fossil records?

(1) Many organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.
(2) Species occupying the same habitat have identical
environmental needs.
(3) The struggle for existence between organisms results in changes in populations.
(4) Structures such as leg bones and wing bones can originate
from the same type of tissue found in embryos.

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