1 The rise of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai can be attributed to

(1) their emphasis on nationalism
(2) the spread of Christianity
(3) the rise of European imperialism
(4) their locations near the trans-Sahara trade routes

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2 Mansa Musa commissioned great mosques to be built in Timbuktu, Maliís capital, and in other Mali cities. Under Musaís patronage, Muslim scholarship flourished, and Timbuktu began
its tenure as an important center of learning. This public display of wealth and power enhanced Maliís reputation and prestige throughout the world.

Which phrase best describes Mali under the rule of Mansa Musa?

(1) a golden age
(2) a poverty-stricken era
(3) a decade of colonial unrest
(4) a period of political chaos

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3 ē Sale of indulgences authorized by Pope Leo X to raise money to build St. Peterís Basilica in Rome (1515)
ē Ninety-five Theses posted (1517)
ē Hearing held at Worms, Germany (1521)

These events are most closely associated with

(1) Charles V and absolutism
(2) Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation
(3) John Locke and the Enlightenment
(4) Karl Marx and scientific socialism

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4 Inca terrace farming and Aztec floating gardens are examples of

(1) the ability of civilizations to adapt to their regionís physical geography
(2) slash-and-burn farming techniques
(3) Mesoamerican art forms symbolizing the importance of agriculture
(4) colonial economic policies that harmed Latin American civilizations

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5 Which statement best illustrates the concept of European mercantilism during  the Age of Exploration?

(1) England encouraged free trade among its colonies.
(2) Spain reduced exports to its South American colonies.
(3) Portugal sought trade benefits from its colonial possessions.
(4) France refused to give financial support to weak national industries.

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