1 The rise of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai can be
(1) their emphasis on nationalism
(2) the spread of Christianity
(3) the rise of European imperialism
(4) their locations near the trans-Sahara trade routes
(1) a golden age
(2) a poverty-stricken era
(3) a decade of colonial unrest
(4) a period of political chaos
(1) Charles V and absolutism
(2) Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation
(3) John Locke and the Enlightenment
(4) Karl Marx and scientific socialism
(1) the ability of civilizations to
adapt to their regionís physical geography
(2) slash-and-burn farming techniques
(3) Mesoamerican art forms symbolizing the importance of
(4) colonial economic policies that harmed Latin American
(1) England encouraged free trade
among its colonies.
(2) Spain reduced exports to its South American colonies.
(3) Portugal sought trade benefits from its colonial possessions.
(4) France refused to give financial support to weak national