The Milky Way galaxy is best described as

(1) a type of solar system
(2) a constellation visible to everyone on Earth
(3) a region in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
(4) a spiral-shaped formation composed of billions of stars

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 2 The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole.

Beginning with the Moon at position X (the new-Moon phase), which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during 1 month?

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3 The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

(1) Earth      (3) Moon
(2) Sun        (4) Polaris

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4 Which condition would cause surface runoff to increase in a particular location?

(1) covering a dirt road with pavement
(2) reducing the gradient of a steep hill
(3) planting grasses and shrubs on a hillside
(4) having a decrease in the annual rainfall

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5 An increase in which gas would cause the most greenhouse warming of Earth’s atmosphere?

(1) nitrogen      (3) carbon dioxide
(2) oxygen       (4) hydrogen

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