NYS Regents


11 The instructions for the traits of an organism are coded in the
arrangement of

(1) glucose units in carbohydrate molecules
(2) bases in DNA in the nucleus
(3) fat molecules in the cell membrane
(4) energy-rich bonds in starch molecules

12 Which statement is true regarding an alteration or change in DNA?

(1) It is always known as a mutation.
(2) It is always advantageous to an individual.
(3) It is always passed on to offspring.
(4) It is always detected by the process of chromatography.

13 In heterotrophs, energy for the life processes comes from the chemical energy stored in the bonds of

(1) water molecules
(2) oxygen molecules
(3) organic compounds
(4) inorganic compounds

14 The diagram below represents the chemical pathway of a process in a human liver cell.

A particular liver cell is unable to make substance C. One possible explanation for the inability of this cell to make substance C is that

(1) excess energy for step 2 prevented the conversion of substance B to substance C
(2) an excess of enzyme X was present, resulting in a decrease in the production of substance B
(3) nuclear DNA was altered resulting in the cell being unable to make enzyme Y
(4) a mutation occurred causing a change in the ability of the cell to use substance C

15 The diagram below shows a process that can occur during meiosis.

The most likely result of this process is

(1) a new combination of inheritable traits that can appear in the offspring
(2) an inability to pass either of these chromosomes on to offspring
(3) a loss of genetic information that will produce a genetic disorder in the offspring
(4) an increase in the chromosome number of the organism in which this process occurs

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