NYS Regents


11 Molecule 1 represents a segment of hereditary information, and molecule 2 represents the portion of a molecule that is determined by information from molecule 1.

What will most likely happen if there is a change in the first three subunits on the upper strand of molecule 1?

(1) The remaining subunits in molecule 1 will also change.
(2) A portion of molecule 2 may be different.
(3) Molecule 1 will split apart, triggering an immune response.
(4) Molecule 2 may form two strands rather than one.

12 The diagram below shows two different structures, 1 and 2, that are present in many single-celled organisms. Structure 1 contains protein A, but not protein B, and structure 2 contains protein B, but not protein A.

Which statement is correct concerning protein A and protein B?

(1) Proteins A and B have different functions and different amino acid chains.
(2) Proteins A and B have different functions but the same amino acid chains.
(3) Proteins A and B have the same function but a different sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G).
(4) Proteins A and B have the same function and the same sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G).

13 Which process is a common practice that has been used by farmers for hundreds of years to develop new plant and animal varieties?

(1) cloning
(2) genetic engineering
(3) cutting DNA and removing segments
(4) selective breeding for desirable traits

14 Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution?

(1) A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct.
(2) Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms.
(3) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
(4) Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms.

15 The diagrams below show the bones in the fore-limbs of three different organisms.

Differences in the bone arrangements support the hypothesis that these organisms

(1) are members of the same species
(2) may have descended from the same ancestor
(3) have adaptations to survive in different environments
(4) all contain the same genetic information

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