NYS Regents


11 In the diagram below, the dark dots indicate small molecules. These molecules are moving out of the cells, as indicated by the arrows. The number of dots inside and outside of the two cells represents the relative concentrations of the molecules inside and outside of the cells.

ATP is being used to move the molecules out of the cell by

(1) cell A, only        (3) both cell A and cell B
(2) cell B, only        (4) neither cell A nor cell B

12 The diagrams below represent some steps in a procedure used in

Letters X and Y represent the

(1) hormones that stimulate the replication of bacterial DNA
(2) biochemical catalysts involved in the insertion of genes into other organisms
(3) hormones that trigger rapid mutation of genetic information
(4) gases needed to produce the energy required for gene

13 According to some scientists, patterns of evolution can be illustrated by the diagrams below.

Which statement best explains the patterns seen in these diagrams?

(1) The organisms at the end of each branch can be found in the environment today.
(2) The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes.
(3) Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of
organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.
(4) These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms.

14 Which statement best illustrates a rapid biological adaptation that has actually occurred?

(1) Pesticide-resistant insects have developed in certain
(2) Scientific evidence indicates that dinosaurs once lived on land.
(3) Paving large areas of land has decreased habitats for certain organisms.
(4) The characteristics of sharks have remained unchanged over a long period of time.

15 During meiosis, crossing-over (gene exchange between chromosomes) may occur. Crossing-over usually results in

(1) overproduction of gametes
(2) fertilization and development
(3) the formation of identical offspring
(4) variation within the species

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