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NYS Regents

NEW YORK STATE REGENTS EXAMS
LIVING ENVIRONMENT - AUGUST 2001

9 The diagram below represents a cell in water. Formulas of molecules that
can move freely across the cell membrane are shown. Some molecules are
located inside the cell and others are in the water outside the cell.

Based on the distribution of these molecules, what would most likely happen after a period of time?

(1) The concentration of O2 will increase inside the cell.
(2) The concentration of CO2 will remain the same inside the cell.
(3) The concentration of O2,will remain the same outside the cell.
(4) The concentration of CO2 will decrease outside the cell.

10 During the warm temperatures of summer, the arctic fox produces enzymes that cause its fur to become reddish brown. During the cold temperatures of winter, these enzymes do not function. As a result, the fox has a white coat that blends into the snowy background. This change in fur color shows that

(1) the genes of a fox are made of unstable DNA
(2) mutations can be caused by temperature extremes
(3) random alteration of DNA can occur on certain chromosomes
(4) the expression of certain genes is affected by temperature


11 Which phrases best identify characteristics of asexual reproduction?

(1) one parent, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to the parent
(2) one parent, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents
(3) two parents, union of gametes, offspring similar to but not genetically identical to parents
(4) two parents, no union of gametes, offspring genetically identical to parents

12 To determine the identity of their biological parents, adopted children sometimes request DNA tests. These tests involve comparing DNA samples from the child to DNA samples taken from the likely parents. Possible relationships may be determined from these tests because the

(1) base sequence of the father determines the base sequence of the offspring
(2) DNA of parents and their offspring is more similar than the DNA of non-family members
(3) position of the genes on each chromosome is unique to each family
(4) mutation rate is the same in closely related individuals

13 Although all the body cells in an animal contain the same hereditary information, they do not all look and function the same way. The cause of this difference is that during differentiation

(1) embryonic cells use different portions of their genetic information
(2) the number of genes increases as embryonic cells move to new
locations
(3) embryonic cells delete portions of chromosomes
(4) genes in embryonic body cells mutate rapidly

14 According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce?

(1) Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(2) Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are.
(3) Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
(4) Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.
 

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